Sunday, February 5, 2012

ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS

ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS:

Drugs designed to act selectively on foreign organisms that have invaded and infected the body. 


Range from

  1. Antibiotics 
  2. Antifungal 
  3. Antiprotozoal 
  4. Antihelmintics 
  5. Antiviral 
  6. Antimycobacterial 


General Mechanism of Action: 
  1. Some interfere with the biosynthesis of CELL WALL. 
  2. Some inhibits CHON synthesis 
  3. Some change the cell membrane permeability 
  4. Some inhibit DNA synthesis 
The following videos show the mechanism of actions of certain classes of anti-infective drugs as well as how microorganisms develop resistance against them. 

*After viewing all videos, kindly post your learning and/or reactions by answering the following questions in the comment box. This will serve as a one of your requirements in Pharmacology.


1. What are the pharmacologic implications of the differences in human and microbial cell structures?
2. How does each of the agents fight back infection?
3. What are the possible challenges and limitations that an anti-infective drug can encounter now and in the future?



ANTIBIOTICS & HOW THEY TREAT INFECTION
video


BETA-LACTAM MECHANISM OF ACTION
video



MACROLIDE MECHANISM OF ACTION
video


FLUOROQUINOLONES MECHANISM OF ACTION
video


Saturday, December 3, 2011

Pharmacokinetics

PHARMACOKINETICS
is the study of drug movement throughout the body. It involves 4 processes: 

1. ABSORPTION
refers to what happens to a drug from the time it is introduced to the body until it reaches the circulating fluids and tissues.

Areas where drug can be absorbed:
GI tract (oral/rectal)
mucous membrane
skin
lungs
muscle
subcutaneous tissues

Factors Affecting Drug Absorption in the body:
a. Circulation/blood perfusion on the site of absorption
- poor circulation due to shock, vasoconstrictor drugs, or disease hampers absorption

b. Temperature
- cold causes vasoconstriction and decreases absorption; heat causes vasodilation and increases absorption

c. Drug Solubility
- the quality or condition of being soluble or the amount of a substance (water/oil) that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent.

Lipid-soluble drugs can be easily absorbed than water-soluble drugs that usually need a carrier to be able to pass through lipid membranes.

d. Rate Limiting
Disintegration - the breakdown of a tablet into a smaller particles

Dissolution - dissolving of the smaller particles into the GI fluid before absorption; the rate of dissolution is affected by the acidity of the GI tract.

e. Route of administration
IV drugs are easily absorbed than IM, SQ and oral drugs.

ORAL MEDICATION ABSORPTION

video


IV MEDICATION ABSORPTION
video

f. First-pass Effect
-the process in which the drug passes to the liver first, which results to a large percentage of the oral dose being destroyed, never reaching the tissues.


2. DISTRIBUTION
the process by which the drug becomes available to body fluids and body tissues.


FACTORS AFFECTING DRUG DISTRIBUTION

video

DRUG-BINDING

video


NICOTINE RECEPTORS IN THE BRAIN

video




3. METABOLISM (BIOTRANSFORMATION)
- process by which drugs are changed into new, less active chemicals. Liver is the primary site for metabolism. 

Most drugs are inactivated by liver enzymes and are then transformed by hepatic enzymes to inactivate metabolites or water-soluble substances for excretion.


4. EXCRETION
-refers to the manner at which the drug leaves the body.


BN 221, please post your reflections on the comment box.

Thursday, November 10, 2011

COURSE OUTLINE FOR ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

Course Name:
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Course Description:
This course deals with human in terms of its adaptations, structural framework, with emphasis on physiology, regulations' adaptive mechanisms, integrates lecture with laboratory experiences which provides exercises and techniques necessary in clinical situations.
Course Credit:
3 units lecture, 2 units lab
Contact Hours/Sem:
54 lecture hours, 108 lab hours
Prerequisite:
None
Placement:
1st year, 2nd semester
Terminal Competency:
At the end of the course and given specific situations/conditions, the studetns should be able to:                                                                                

1. describe the anatomic structures and physiologic mechanisms/processes/systems involved in the following physiologic concepts:            
- locomotion, fluid transport, gas exchange, fluid and electrolytes, acid/base dynamics, nutrition metabolism, chemical regualtion, neural regulation, sensory intake, protection, awareness and response to the environment and reproduction.                                                        

2. utilize basic anatomical facts and physiological concepts and principles in the nursing care of individuals.

COURSE OUTLINE
I.              THE HUMAN ORGANISM
a.    Anatomy
                                          i.    Definition
                                         ii.    Types of study
1.    Systemic anatomy
2.    Regional anatomy
3.    Surfaced anatomy
b.    Physiology
                                          i.    Definition
                                         ii.    Types of study
1.    According to the organism involved (Human Physiology)
2.    According to levels of organization within a given organism
                                        iii.    Structural and Functional Organization
1.    7 Structural Levels
a.    Chemical
b.    Organelle
c.    Cell
d.    Tissue
                                                                                                                                            Types
1.    Epithelial
2.    Connective
3.    Muscular
4.    Nervous
e.    Organ
f.     11 Organ System
                                                                                                                                 i.    Integumentary
                                                                                                                               ii.    Skeletal
                                                                                                                             iii.    Muscular
                                                                                                                             iv.    Nervous
                                                                                                                              v.    Endocrine
                                                                                                                            vi.    Cardiovascular
                                                                                                                          vii.    Lymphatic
                                                                                                                        viii.    Respiratory
                                                                                                                            ix.    Digestive
                                                                                                                             x.    Urinary
                                                                                                                           xi.    Reproductive
g.    Organism
                                       iv.    Characteristics of Life
1.    Organization
2.    Metabolism
3.    Responsiveness
4.    Growth
5.    Development
6.    Reproduction
                                        v.    Homeostasis
1.    Negative Feedback
2.    Positive Feedback
                                       vi.    Terminology and the Body Planes
1.    Directional Terms
a.    Right and Left
b.    Interior and Superior
c.    Dorsal and Ventral
d.    Proximal and Distal
e.    Lateral and Medial
f.     Superficial and Deep
2.    Planes/Sections
a.    Sagittal/Midsagittal Plane
b.    Transverse/Horizontal section
c.    Frontal/Coronal Section
d.    Longitudinal Section
e.    Oblique section
3.    Body Regions
a.    Division
                                                                                          i.    Limbs
                                                                                         ii.    Head
                                                                                        iii.    Neck
                                                                                       iv.    Trunk
                                                                                        v.     Abdomen
1.    4 Quadrants
2.    9 Regions
4.    Body Cavities
a.    Thoracic Cavity
b.    Abdominal Cavity
c.    Pelvic Cavity
5.    Serous Membranes
a.    Locations
                                                                                          i.    Pericardial
                                                                                         ii.    Pleural
                                                                                        iii.    Peritoneum
                                                                                       iv.    Parietal Peritoneum
1.    Mesentery
2.    Retroperitoneal
                                                                                        v.    Visceral Peritoneum
II.            CELLS, TISSUES, GLANDS AND MEMBRANES
a.    Cell
                                          i.    Cell structure and function
                                         ii.    Whole cell activity
1.    Movement through the plasma membrane
a.    Diffusion
b.    Osmosis
c.    Filtration
d.    Facilitated Diffusion
e.    Active Transport
f.     Endocytosis
g.    Exocytosis
2.    Protein Synthesis
a.    Transcription
b.    Translation
3.    Cell Division
a.    Mitosis
b.    Meiosis
4.    Differentiation
b.    Tissues
                                          i.    Basic Tissue Types
1.    Epithelial tissues
a.    Classification
                                                                                          i.    Simple epithelium
                                                                                         ii.    Pseudostratified Columnar
                                                                                        iii.    Transitional Epithelium
b.    Functional Characteristics
c.    Glands
                                                                                          i.    Exocrine
                                                                                         ii.    Endocrine
2.    Connective tissues
a.    Classification
                                                                                          i.    Dense Connective
1.    Tendon
2.    Ligaments
3.    Dermis of the skin
4.    Organ capsule
                                                                                         ii.    Loose or Areolar
                                                                                        iii.    Adipose Tissues
b.    Matrix with both protein in fibers and ground substances
                                                                                          i.    Cartilages
                                                                                         ii.    Bone
                                                                                        iii.    Blood
3.    Muscle tissue
a.    Types
                                                                                          i.    Skeletal
                                                                                         ii.    Cardiac
                                                                                        iii.    Smooth
4.    Nervous tissue
a.    Parts
                                                                                          i.    Dendrites
                                                                                         ii.    Cell body axon
                                                                                        iii.    Supported cells or neuroglia
5.    Membranes
a.    Categories
                                                                                          i.    Mucous membrane
                                                                                         ii.    Serous membrane
                                                                                        iii.    Other membrane
1.    Cutaneous membrane
2.    Synovial membrane
3.    Periosteum membrane
6.    Inflammation
a.    Function
b.    Symptoms
7.    Tissue repair
a.    Types of repair
                                                                                          i.    Regeneration
                                                                                         ii.    Replacement
b.    Stages
                                                                                          i.    Clot formation
                                                                                         ii.    Inflammation
                                                                                        iii.    Formation of granulation tissue
                                                                                       iv.    Regeneration or replacement tissue
c.    The Chemistry of Life
                                          i.    Organic molecules
1.    Carbohydrates
2.    Lipids
3.    Protein
a.    Enzymes
4.    Nucleic acids
III.           INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
a.    Structure of the Skin
                                          i.    Layers
1.    Epidermis
2.    Dermis
                                         ii.    Skin Color
                                        iii.    Functions of the skin
                                       iv.    Effects of Aging on the Integumentary system
b.    Accessory Skin Structures
                                          i.    Hair
                                         ii.    Muscles
                                        iii.    Glands
1.    Sebaceous glands
2.    Merocrine sweat glands
3.    Apocrine sweat glands
IV.          SKELETAL SYSTEM
a.    Major components
                                          i.    Bones
                                         ii.    Associated cartilages
                                        iii.    Joints
b.    Connective tissue
c.    General Feature of the Bone
                                          i.    Types of bone based on their shape
1.    Long
2.    Short
3.    Flat
4.    Irregular
                                         ii.    Types of bone on their histological structure
1.    Compact
2.    Cancellous
                                        iii.    Bone ossification
                                       iv.    Bone growth
                                        v.    Bone repair
d.    General Classification of Bone Anatomy
                                          i.    Axial Skeleton
1.    Skull
a.    Cranial nerve
b.    Face
2.    Vertebral Column
3.    Thoracic Cage
a.    Thoracic vertebrates
b.    Ribs
c.    Sternum
                                         ii.    Appendicular Skeleton
1.    Pectoral girdle
2.    Upper limb
3.    Pectoral Pelvic girdle
                                        iii.    Articulation
1.    Functional Classification
a.    Synarthrosis
b.    Amphiarthrosis
c.    Diarrthrosis
2.    Structural Classification
a.    Fibrous
b.    Cartilaginous
c.    Synovial
d.    Plane or gliding
e.    Saddle
f.     Hinge
g.    Pivot
h.    Ball and socket
i.      Ellipsoid or condyloid
3.    Types of Movement
V.            MUSCULAR SYSTEM
a.    Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle
                                          i.    Structure
                                         ii.    Membrane potentials
                                        iii.    Nerve supply
                                       iv.    Muscle contraction
b.    Smooth Muscle Anatomy
c.    Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
                                          i.    General principles
                                         ii.    Nomenclature
                                        iii.    Muscles of the head and neck
                                       iv.    Trunk muscles
                                        v.    Upper limb muscles
                                       vi.    Lower limb muscles
VI.          RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
a.    Anatomy
                                          i.    Nose and nasal cavities
1.    Position and structure
2.    Function
a.    Respiratory function
b.    Olfactory function
                                         ii.    Pharynx
1.    Position and structure
2.    Functions
                                        iii.    Larynx
1.    Position and structure
2.    Cartilages
3.    Functions
a.    Respiratory function
b.    Voice function
4.    Trachea
a.    Position and structure
5.    Bronchi and smaller air passages
a.    Structure
6.    Lungs
a.    Position and structure
7.    Pleural cavities
a.    Position and structure
b.    Ventilation and Lung Volumes
                                          i.    Phases of ventilation
1.    Inspiration
2.    Expiration
                                         ii.    Mechanisms of ventilation
                                        iii.    Collapse of the lung
1.    Surface tension
2.    Surfactant
                                       iv.    Pulmonary volumes and capacities
c.    Gas exchange
                                          i.    Factors affecting exchange
1.    Respiratory membrane thickness
2.    Surface area
3.    Partial pressure
a.    Diffusion of gases in the lung
b.    Diffusion of gases in the tissue
4.    Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport in the blood
5.    Modification of Ventilation
a.    Nervous control of ventilation
b.    Chemical control of ventilation
c.    Effect of exercise on ventilation
VII.         CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
a.    The Heart
                                          i.    Size, form and location
                                         ii.    Anatomy
1.    Pericardium
2.    External anatomy
3.    Blood supply
a.    Coronary arteries
b.    Cardiac veins
4.    Heart chambers
a.    Right and left atrium
b.    Right and left ventricles
5.    Heart valves
a.    Atrioventricular valves
b.    Semilunar valves
6.    Routes of Blood Flow through the heart
7.    Heart wall
8.    Cardiac muscle
                                        iii.    Conduction system of the heart
                                       iv.    Cardiac cycle
1.    Systole
2.    Diastole
                                        v.    Heart sounds
1.    Normal sounds S1 and S2
2.    Abnormal sounds – murmurs
                                       vi.    Regulation of heart function
1.    Intrinsic regulation of heart
2.    Extrinsic regulation of heart
b.    The Blood Vessels and Circulation of Blood
                                          i.    Structures and functions
1.    Arteries
2.    Capillaries
3.    Veins
                                         ii.    Blood Vessels of the Pulmonary Circulation
1.    Pulmonary arteries
2.    Pulmonary veins
                                        iii.    Blood vessels of the Systemic Circulation
1.    Arteries
a.    Aorta
b.    Arteries of the head and neck
c.    Arteries of the upper limbs
d.    Of the thoracic aorta and its balance
e.    Of the abdominal aorta and its balance
f.     Of the pelvis
g.    Of the lower limbs
2.    Veins
a.    Vena Cave
b.    Veins of the head and neck
c.    Of the upper limbs
d.    Of the thorax
e.    Of the abdomen and pelvis
f.     Of the lower limbs
                                       iv.    The Physiology of Circulation
1.    Blood pressure
2.    Pressure and resistance
3.    Pulse pressure
4.    Capillary exchange
                                        v.    Control and Blood vessels
1.    Local control
2.    Nervous control
                                       vi.    Regulation of arterial pressure
1.    Baroreceptor reflexes
2.    Chemoreceptor reflexes
3.    Hormonal mechanism
a.    Adrenal Medullary mechanism
b.    Renin-angiotensin Aldosterone Mechanism
VIII.        THE BLOOD
a.    Functions
b.    Composition of blood
                                          i.    Plasma
                                         ii.    Cellular content
1.    Production of formed elements or hematopoeisis
2.    Varieties of blood cells
a.    RBC or erythrocytes
                                                                                          i.    Functions
                                                                                         ii.    Development and lifespan of RBC
                                                                                        iii.    Destruction of RBC
                                                                                       iv.    Blood glucose
1.    ABO Blood Group
2.    RH Blood Group
b.    WBC or leucocytes
                                                                                          i.    Functions
                                                                                         ii.    Main types
1.    Granulocytes
a.    Neutrophils
b.    Basophils
c.    Eosinophils
2.    Agranulocytes
a.    Monocytes
b.    Lymphocytes
c.    Platelets or thrombocytes
3.    Preventing Blood Loss
a.    Blood vessel constriction
b.    Platelet plugs
c.    Blood Clotting
d.    Control of clot formation
e.    Clot retraction and dissoulution
IX.          LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY
a.    Functions
b.    Lymphatic vessels
c.    Organs
                                          i.    Tonsils
                                         ii.    Lymph nodes
                                        iii.    Spleen
                                       iv.    Thymus gland
d.    Immunity
                                          i.    Innate immunity
1.    Mechanical mechanism
2.    Chemical mediators
a.    Complement interferons
3.    Cells
a.    Phagocytes cells
b.    Cells of inflammation
c.    Natural Killer (NK ) cells
d.    Inflammatory Response
                                         ii.    Adaptive immunity
1.    Origin and development of lymphocytes
2.    Activation and regulation of lymphocytes
3.    Types of adaptive immunity
a.    Antibody-mediated or Humoral
b.    Cell-mediated
4.    Ways to acquire adaptive immunity
a.    Active natural
b.    Active artificial
c.    Passive natural
d.    Passive artificial
X.            DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
a.    Activities in the digestive system
                                          i.    Ingestion
                                         ii.    Digestion
1.    Mechanical mastication
2.    Chemical by enzymes
                                        iii.    Absorption
                                       iv.    Provide nutrients
                                        v.    Elimination
b.    Trunks or layers of the Digestive tract
                                          i.    Mucosa
                                         ii.    Submucosa
                                        iii.    Muscularis
                                       iv.    Either adventitia or serosa
c.    Organs and functions of the digestive system
                                          i.    Alimentary tract
1.    Oral cavity or mouth
a.    Tongue
b.    Teeth
c.    Palate and tonsils
d.    Salivary glands
2.    Pharynx
3.    Esophagus
4.    Stomach
5.    Small intestine
6.    Large intestine
7.    Rectum and anal canal
                                         ii.    Accessory organs
1.    Salivary glands
2.    Pancreas
a.    As exocrine gland
b.    As endocrine gland
3.    Liver and the biliary tract
d.    Movements and secretion in the system
                                          i.    Oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus
1.    Secretion of the oral cavity
2.    Mastication
3.    Deglutition
                                         ii.    Stomach
1.    Secretion of the stomach
2.    Regulations of the stomach secretions
a.    Cephalic phase
b.    Gastric phase
c.    Intestinal phase
3.    Movements in the stomach
a.    Mixing waves
XI.          ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
a.    Hormones
b.    The endocrine glands and their hormones
                                          i.    Pituitary and Hypothalamus
                                         ii.    Thyroid gland
                                        iii.    Parathyroid gland
                                       iv.    Adrenal Medulla
                                        v.    Pancreas
                                       vi.    Testes and ovaries
                                      vii.    Thymus gland
                                     viii.    Pineal body

XII.         URINARY SYSTEM
a.    Structure and function
                                          i.    Kidney
1.    Gross structure of the kidney
2.    Microscopic structure if the kidney-nephron
3.    Blood supply
4.    Functions
5.    Urine production
a.    Filtration
b.    Reabsorption
c.    Secretions
6.    Composition of urine
7.    Regulation of urine concentration and volume
a.    Hormonal mechanisms
b.    Effect of sympathetic enervation on the kidney function
8.    Urine movement
a.    Micturition reflex
                                         ii.    Ureters
1.    Structure and function
                                        iii.    Urinary bladder
1.    Organs associated with the bladder
a.    In female
b.    In male
2.    Structure
3.    Function
                                       iv.    Urethra
b.    Fluids and Electrolytes
                                          i.    Body fluid compartment
1.    ICF
2.    ECF
                                         ii.    Composition of fluid in the body fluid compartments
                                        iii.    Exchange between body fluid compartments
1.    Hydrostatic pressure
2.    Osmotic pressure
                                       iv.    Regulation of extracellular fluid composition
1.    Thirst
2.    Ions
a.    Sodium ions
b.    Potassium ions
c.    Calcium ions
d.    Phosphate and sulfate ions
                                        v.    Regulations of acid-base balance
1.    Buffers
a.    Proteins
b.    Phosphate buffer system
c.    Bicarbonate buffer system
2.    Respiratory system
3.    Kidneys
                                       vi.    Alteration in the buffering mechanism
1.    Acidosis
2.    Alkalosis
XIII.        NERVOUS SYSTEM
a.    Division of the nervous system
                                          i.    Central nervous system
                                         ii.    Peripheral nervous system
b.    Cells of the nervous: neurons
                                          i.    Nervous or nerve cell
1.    Types of the nervous neuron on the basis of shape
a.    Multipolar neuron
b.    Bipolar neuron
c.    Unipolar neuron
2.    Functions
a.    Sensory of afferent nerve
b.    Special senses
                                         ii.    Neurologic or glial cell
                                        iii.    Myelin sheath
                                       iv.    Organization of the nervous tissues
                                        v.    Propagation of action potential
                                       vi.    Properties of nerve tissue
c.    Central nervous system
                                          i.    Parts of the CNS
1.    Brain
2.    Spinal cord
                                         ii.    Brain regions
1.    Brainstem
2.    Diencephalon
3.    Cerebrum
4.    Cerebellum
                                        iii.    Pathway and functions of CNS
d.    Peripheral nervous system
e.    Autonomic nervous system
XIV.       SPECIFIC SENSES
a.    Major groups
                                          i.    General senses
                                         ii.    Special sense
1.    Smell
2.    Taste
3.    Sight
4.    Hearing
5.    Balance
b.    General sense
                                          i.    Receptors
                                         ii.    Nerve endings
                                        iii.    Pain
c.    Special senses
                                          i.    Olfaction
                                         ii.    Taste
                                        iii.    Vision and Eye Visual System
                                       iv.    Hearing and balance

XV.        REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
a.    Male reproductive system
                                          i.    Parts
1.    Scrotum
2.    Testes
3.    Spermatogenesis
4.    Ducts
5.    Penis
6.    Glands
7.    Secretions
                                         ii.    Physiology of male reproduction
1.    Regulation of sex hormone secretion
2.    Puberty
3.    Effects of testosterone
4.    Male sexual behavior and the male sexual act
b.    Female reproductive system
                                          i.    Parts
1.    Ovaries
2.    Uterine tubes
3.    Uterus
4.    Vagina
5.    External genitalia
6.    Mammary glands
                                         ii.    Physiology of female reproduction
1.    Puberty
2.    Menstrual cycle
3.    Menopause
4.    Female sexual behavior and the female sexual act.